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Mining Locations

Geology & Mining Techniques
Geology & Mining Techniques

History Of Ruby Mining Techniques Although rubies can be found in many locations, not all areas can be successfully mined.  If deposits cannot be mined easily; if they are located in remote, inhospitable, or politically volatile regions; if labor is too costly; or if regulation presents obstacles; there can be no viable mining industry.   […]

Rubies from Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)
Rubies from Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)

Sri Lanka is an island nation to the south-east of the Indian peninsula. Sri Lanka has always been a mining center for a wide variety of gemstones, not just ruby. The island is so prolific in their wealth of gems that the Greeks, Romans, and Etruscans called it “Ratnadeepa,” meaning “Island of Gems.” Many types […]

Rubies from Myanmar (formerly Burma)
Rubies from Myanmar (formerly Burma)

General Appearance Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) is world famous for Burmese Rubies (sometimes used as a trade term for finest quality rubies, and not always indicative of geographical origin). A historical producer of fine quality rubies to this day, characteristics typical of these stones include any combination of: Silk (rutile needles) and other clarity […]

Rubies from Thailand
Rubies from Thailand

Thailand is known for producing rubies with high clarity and a deep red “Siamese” color.  As early as the 15th century, visitors forwarded glowing reports of the fabulous rubies that could be found there.  In 1687, the French envoy to Siam reported that the country was “abounding in mines of rubies and sapphires.”  He also […]

Rubies from Cambodia
Rubies from Cambodia

Cambodia rubies should be noted as almost synonymous with Thailand rubies because the mines for both are located around the same border between the two countries. Moreover, many of Cambodia’s mines were formerly Thailand’s until 1907*, including Pailin. As such, the features of: A deeper, darker red. Appear eye-clean more often than marble-hosted (low iron, […]

Rubies from Vietnam
Rubies from Vietnam

Vietnam is a source of marble-hosted rubies, including the most common characteristics: – Colors ranging from red to a more purple-pink color. – Diffused light from clarity characteristics. – High fluorescence. They share characteristics with the […]

Rubies from Laos
Rubies from Laos

Introduction Like its neighbors of Cambodia, Vietnam, Burma, and Thailand, Laos has ruby deposits too. However, the ruby mining in the country pales to the sapphire mining. In 1895, H. Warington Smyth writes that the reported discovery of rubies by a Siamese official*. This particular report was false, though deposits do currently exist but not […]

Rubies from Madagascar
Rubies from Madagascar

Madagascar Location The island of Madagascar is located off the east coast of Africa, opposite of the Mozambique coast. It is part of the Mozambique orogenic belt (think a geological treasure-box of gems). Geological Information It’s geological formation is unique because in the north, it has high-iron, basalt-hosted rubies. These are known for being clear […]

Rubies from Tanzania
Rubies from Tanzania

Tanzania is well-known for being a treasure-trove of gems thanks to the Mozambique orogenic belt (a geological formation that acts as nature’s treasure box). The mines in the country have been worked on and off for many years, but after very fine, large, and untreated rubies appeared from Winza (roughly located in the center of […]

Rubies from Kenya
Rubies from Kenya

History of Ruby Mining in Kenya Another member of the Mozambique orogenic belt, Kenya’s mining history only dates back to the 1970s. Like Madagascar, Kenya is able to produce basalt and marble hosted rubies of gem quality. Appearance of Kenya Rubies Photo by Ted Themelis While Kenya has deposits of cabochon and facet-grade ruby material, […]

Rubies from Malawi
Rubies from Malawi

About Malawi Malawi is a small country in Africa. While noted for rubies and orange sapphires, most of what Malawi’s main mine, Chimwadzulu, produces is pale green, blue, and yellow sapphires. History of Ruby Mining in Malawi Malawi is one of the older mines in Africa with operations running since the 1950s. Chimwadzulu alone produces […]

Rubies from Mozambique
Rubies from Mozambique

Common characteristics in rubies produced in Mozambique are: A deeper, darker red. Appear eye-clean more often than marble-hosted (low iron) stones. Lack of fluorescence. While Thailand is more historically associated with these types of characteristics, since both sources are basalt-hosted (meaning high iron, darker rubies) they are capable of producing similar stones in appearance, inclusions, […]

Rubies from Afghanistan
Rubies from Afghanistan

Afghan rubies are marble hosted, meaning they typically range from purplish red to red, and fluoresce brightly. They also frequently have blue color-zoning. The vast majority of rubies from this country are not facet grade, more often cabochon or frequently carving grade. Ruby Mining in Afghanistan While not well-known as a ruby source, Afghanistan is […]

Rubies from Pakistan
Rubies from Pakistan

Due to the extensive smuggling of Afghan rubies into Pakistan, many do not realize that Pakistan has its own wealth of gems that are underexploited. The ruby deposits here are primary deposits, initially discovered in the 1980s. Like the Afghanistan material, these rubies are mostly cabochan and carving grade. There is small, transparent material under […]